Why was HR most inaccurate for walking?

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Date sent: 2017/07/19 10:48:12
The study by Scherbina shows an almost universal increase in HR error just during walking. Unfortunately, the authors didn't question this nor treat it in more detail anywhere in the paper and so I wonder what might have caused this. I understand that all the devices that were tested use wrist based HR measurement, correct? Is the error rate during walking systematic to just this mode of measurement and how would it compare to chest electrodes?

Further, why was error rate significantly higher for males? This is puzzling unless it's attibuted to something about skin tone, skin fat etc...